Computer Structure and Computer Function Difference


A computer is a combination of hardware and software resources which integrate together to provide various functions. It consists of a processor, memory devices, monitor, keyboard and so on.

The basic function of a computer is to move data between itself and the outside world. It also performs storage of temporary data and information.

Basic structure of a computer

Computers are electronic machines that process data and connect us to the world. Their basic structure includes a central processing unit, input devices, and output devices.

The central processing unit (CPU) translates raw input data into instructions and sends them to memory for storage and display on the screen. It also receives output commands from the user, and sends them back to memory or to a printer for display.

The architecture of a computer system refers to those attributes that are visible to the software programmer and have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program. These include the number of bits used to represent various data types, the instruction set of a computer, techniques for addressing memory, and methods for input-output.

Central processing unit

A computer’s central processing unit (CPU) controls and coordinates all aspects of a computer system. It receives instructions from a system’s memory, decodes and executes them.

The CPU consists of three major units: the control unit, arithmetic and logic unit, and registers.

The arithmetic and logic unit performs mathematical operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It also performs logical comparisons of numbers and letters. This unit is the most important part of a computer.

Input device

Input devices are used to transfer data or instructions to the computer from a user. They translate incoming data into a pattern of electrical signals in binary code understandable by the computer.

Among the most common input devices are keyboards, mice, joysticks, scanners, and touchpads. Some of them are pointing devices, such as the light pen, which closes a photoelectric circuit when it is placed against the screen to direct the computer’s pointer to the area where the pen has touched.

Output devices, on the other hand, are computer hardware that receives incoming data or instructions from an input device and reproduces them. They may be audio, video, or hard copy devices. Examples of output devices include monitors, printers, plotters, projectors, speakers, and headphones.

Output device

Computer output devices are hardware components that receive data from a computer and process it in human-understandable form. These forms may be text, visual, audio or xerox.

Output devices are vital to a computer’s performance because they allow users to see and hear the processed results of computation. This includes monitors, projectors, and headphones.

The most common output device for a computer is a monitor, which displays information from the computer in a visual format that allows a user to interact with it via a digital interface.

Another kind of output device is a printer, which prints text or images onto paper. These can be standard 2D printers or more advanced 3D printers that create physical objects based on digital models and instructions.

Control unit

A control unit (CU) is the circuitry within a computer’s processor that directs operations. It instructs the memory, arithmetic logic unit (ALU), and both output and input devices on how to respond to a program’s instructions.

The control unit’s two primary tasks are instruction sequencing and instruction interpretation. These are done by generating a series of synced signals that drive the relevant processing gear.

When an instruction arrives in the memory, the control unit decodes it and then directs the data to be moved to the arithmetic/logic unit. The arithmetic/logic unit performs the arithmetic or logical operation on the data.

Then, the resulting data is moved to a register. These are temporary storage locations that allow the arithmetic/logic unit to perform these operations at high speed.

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